Hallux Abducto Valgus (HAV)

There are many causes of bunions noted in the literature; genetic factors, footwear, sex etc but there have also been several studies which have shown abnormal force distribution in those with bunions. This is usually associated with the pronated foot type due to the increased load on associated structures. The genetic ratio of HAV is 8:1 to 9:1 in favour of females. The cause of this is speculated at footwear with high heels and narrow toe boxes being associated with pushing the big toe into the twisted position stretching ligaments and tendons.